HumanInsight Tooth-Related Disease Detection System Based on Panoramic Images and Optimization Through Automation: Development Study
JMIR Med Inform. 2022 Oct 31;10(10):e38640. doi: 10.2196/38640.
BACKGROUND: Early detection of tooth-related diseases in patients plays a key role in maintaining their dental health and preventing future complications. Since dentists are not overly attentive to tooth-related diseases that may be difficult to judge visually, many patients miss timely treatment. The 5 representative tooth-related diseases, that is, coronal caries or defect, proximal caries, cervical caries or abrasion, periapical radiolucency, and residual root can be detected on panoramic images. In this study, a web service was constructed for the detection of these diseases on panoramic images in real time, which helped shorten the treatment planning time and reduce the probability of misdiagnosis.
OBJECTIVE: This study designed a model to assess tooth-related diseases in panoramic images by using artificial intelligence in real time. This model can perform an auxiliary role in the diagnosis of tooth-related diseases by dentists and reduce the treatment planning time spent through telemedicine.
METHODS: For learning the 5 tooth-related diseases, 10,000 panoramic images were modeled: 4206 coronal caries or defects, 4478 proximal caries, 6920 cervical caries or abrasion, 8290 periapical radiolucencies, and 1446 residual roots. To learn the model, the fast region-based convolutional network (Fast R-CNN), residual neural network (ResNet), and inception models were used. Learning about the 5 tooth-related diseases completely did not provide accurate information on the diseases because of indistinct features present in the panoramic pictures. Therefore, 1 detection model was applied to each tooth-related disease, and the models for each of the diseases were integrated to increase accuracy.
RESULTS: The Fast R-CNN model showed the highest accuracy, with an accuracy of over 90%, in diagnosing the 5 tooth-related diseases. Thus, Fast R-CNN was selected as the final judgment model as it facilitated the real-time diagnosis of dental diseases that are difficult to judge visually from radiographs and images, thereby assisting the dentists in their treatment plans.
CONCLUSIONS: The Fast R-CNN model showed the highest accuracy in the real-time diagnosis of dental diseases and can therefore play an auxiliary role in shortening the treatment planning time after the dentists diagnose the tooth-related disease. In addition, by updating the captured panoramic images of patients on the web service developed in this study, we are looking forward to increasing the accuracy of diagnosing these 5 tooth-related diseases. The dental diagnosis system in this study takes 2 minutes for diagnosing 5 diseases in 1 panoramic image. Therefore, this system plays an effective role in setting a dental treatment schedule.
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