HumanInsight Pilot Trial of Homebound Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Transplant Cell Ther. 2022 Sep 28:S2666-6367(22)01631-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtct.2022.09.014. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: For eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and light chain (AL) amyloidosis, high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a standard and widely used consolidation therapy. Autologous HCT requires specialized care at a transplant center and investment from patients and caregivers.
OBJECTIVES: We studied the safety and feasibility of delivering transplant care in a homebound setting to decrease the burden of therapy and increase access to autologous HCT.
STUDY DESIGN: Patients with MM and AL amyloidosis undergoing autologous HCT were eligible if they were residing in designated zip codes and had a full-time caregiver, Wi-Fi connection, HCT co-morbidity index ≤3, and Karnofsky Performance status score ≥80. High-dose melphalan (day -2) and hematopoietic cell reinfusion (day 0) were administered in the outpatient clinic. Protocol-specific home care was provided from day +1 through engraftment. Patients were assessed and blood was drawn daily by advanced-practice providers. Interventions were delivered by registered nurses. Attending physicians communicated through telemedicine daily. Quality-of-life, patient and caregiver satisfaction, and fecal microbiota profiling data were collected.
RESULTS: Fifteen patients were enrolled and received transplant care at home starting on day + 1 following hematopoietic cell infusion. Patients remained in the program for an average of 12 days and required an average of 2 outpatient visits while receiving home care. Seven of 15 patients were admitted for a median of 4 (range 3-10) days; admission occurred on day +7 (n=5), day +8 (n=1), and day +12 (n=1) for neutropenic fever (n=2), fever attributed to engraftment syndrome (n=2), diarrhea (n=2), and dehydration (n=1). Only 1 patient had a documented infection (Clostridioides difficile). One patient admitted with neutropenic fever required intensive care unit admission for a gastrointestinal bleed. Forty-seven percent of patients experienced grade ≥3 non-hematologic toxicities. There were no deaths on study. Patients and caregivers reported high satisfaction with care. Microbiota diversity patterns were similar to those of autologous HCT recipients who did not receive post-HCT care at home, although a subset of our cohort maintained microbiota diversity throughout.
CONCLUSIONS: Homebound HCT in an urban setting is safe and feasible, with less than half of patients requiring inpatient admission. Despite increased patient and caregiver responsibility in the homebound setting compared to an inpatient setting, patient and caregiver satisfaction was high. These results support expansion of homebound transplant programs.
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