HumanInsight Mixed reality surgical mentoring of combat casualty care related procedures in a perfused cadaver model: Initial results of a randomized feasibility study
Surgery. 2022 Aug 26:S0039-6060(22)00503-7. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2022.06.034. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Most telemedicine modalities have limited ability to enhance procedural and operative care. We developed a novel system to provide synchronous bidirectional expert mixed reality-enabled virtual procedural mentoring. In this feasibility study, we evaluated mixed reality mentoring of combat casualty care related procedures in a re-perfused cadaver model.
METHODS: Novices received real-time holographic mentoring from experts using augmented reality via Hololens (Microsoft Inc, Redmond, WA). The experts maintained real-time awareness of the novice's operative environment using virtual reality via HTC-Vive (HTC Corp, Xindian District, Taiwan). Additional cameras (both environments) and novel software created the immersive, shared, 3-dimensional mixed reality environment in which the novice and expert collaborated. The novices were prospectively randomized to either mixed reality or audio-only mentoring. Blinded experts independently evaluated novice procedural videos using a 5-point Likert scale-based questionnaire. Nonparametric variables were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and comparisons using the χ2 analysis; significance was defined at P < .05.
RESULTS: Surgeon and nonsurgeon novices (14) performed 69 combat casualty care-related procedures (38 mixed reality, 31 audio), including various vascular exposures, 4-compartment lower leg fasciotomy, and emergency neurosurgical procedures; 85% were performed correctly with no difference in either group. Upon video review, mixed reality-mentored novices showed no difference in procedural flow and forward planning (3.67 vs 3.28, P = .21) or the likelihood of performing individual procedural steps correctly (4.12 vs 3.59, P = .06).
CONCLUSION: In this initial feasibility study, our novel mixed reality-based mentoring system successfully facilitated the performance of a wide variety of combat casualty care relevant procedures using a high fidelity re-perfused cadaver model. The small sample size and limited variety of novice types likely impacted the ability of holographically mentored novices to demonstrate improvement over the audio-only control group. Despite this, using virtual, augmented, and mixed reality technologies for procedural mentoring demonstrated promise, and further study is needed.
PMID:36038376 | DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2022.06.034
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