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Epidemiology and Risk Factors of UTIs in Children-A Single-Center Observation

HumanInsight Epidemiology and Risk Factors of UTIs in Children-A Single-Center Observation

J Pers Med. 2023 Jan 10;13(1):138. doi: 10.3390/jpm13010138.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of childhood's most common bacterial infections. The study aimed to determine the clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, risk factors, and etiology of different UTIs in children admitted to pediatric hospitals for three years.

METHODS: Patients with positive urine cultures diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis (APN) or cystitis (CYS) were analyzed for clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, risk factors, and etiology, depending on their age and sex.

RESULTS: We studied 948 children with UTIs (531 girls and 417 boys), with a median age of 12 (IQR 5-48 months). A total of 789 children had clinical symptoms; the main symptom was fever (63.4% of patients). Specific symptoms of UTIs were presented only in 16.3% of patients. Children with APN had shown significantly more frequent loss of appetite, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, and less frequent dysuria and haematuria than children with CYS. We found significantly higher median WBC, CRP, and leukocyturia in children with APN than with CYS. The risk factors of UTIs were presented in 46.6% of patients, of which 35.6% were children with APN and 61.7% with CYS. The main risk factor was CAKUT, more frequently diagnosed in children with CYS than APN, mainly in children <2 years. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (74%). There was a higher percentage of urine samples with E. coli in girls than in boys. Other bacteria found were Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus species.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with APN were younger and had higher inflammatory markers. Often, fever is the only symptom of UTI in children, and other clinical signs are usually non-specific. The most common UTI etiology is E. coli, regardless of the clinical presentation and risk factors.

PMID:36675799 | DOI:10.3390/jpm13010138

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